In plain weave fabrics (coarse calico, calico, canvas, gauze, crepe-chiffon), each warp thread is overlapped by each weft thread. In twill weave, the weft thread, overlapping two warp threads, passes under the third warp thread. Satin weave (satin, satin, eraser, moleskin) is characterized by overlapping weft threads from four to twelve and passing under one warp thread. The fabric obtained by any of the methods is called sour. After manufacturing, the rough fabric undergoes additional processing: bleaching, dyeing, finishing, glazing, creating a pile, priming and embossing.
Types of binding materials
Calico is the simplest and most durable, unbleached, plain weave cotton fabric. This harsh fabric is used for the manufacture of binding calico and leatherette. With the help of engraving shafts, a pattern is applied, getting calico from calico. Duk is a thick, sparse, plain-weave cotton fabric that has a high stiffness due to the applied sizing (a starch-based substance).
Gunny is a rare, coarse, highly durable cotton fabric with a plain weave, the color of which is similar to the color of a natural fiber. Basically, matting and duk are used in the manufacture of whole-fabric bindings.
Chiffon is a very thin, high-density plain weave cotton fabric obtained from natural threads. It is used for gluing endpapers. Binding calico is a calico fabric, on both sides of which a film of starch substances and mineral fillers is applied. The fabric is dyed with organic dyes, dried and smoothed. Then a primer based on starch and casein is applied to the wrong side.
Binding calico is produced in two types: KP - for the manufacture of bookbinding covers and KF - lightweight for folders (for the manufacture of composite endpapers). By applying different coatings on the front and back sides, you can get the following bookbinding materials: bookbinding calico "modern", bookbinding calico with nitrocellulose finish, staple bookbinding fabrics, bookbinding materials with latex coating, duplicated bookbinding materials.
Lederin - calico fabric, on the wrong side of which a layer of starch soil is applied, and on the front side - a film of nitrocellulose, plasticizer and pigment; using an embossing calender, a relief pattern is applied. In appearance, lederin resembles natural leather. Bumvinyl is a polyvinyl chloride binding material made by thermally bonding PVC compound and base paper.
Possessing a spectacular appearance and high mechanical strength, bookbinding paints are poorly perceived. Balacron is a material that has a paper base and a vinyl coating that imitates natural leather. The surface of the balacron has a water-based acrylic coating. Suede is fat-tanned leather made from the skins of young animals. The front surface is velvety and painted in light colors.
Artificial suede is obtained by vertically orienting the villi smeared with rubber glue in an electric force field. The villi that are not adhered are removed by an electric field of the opposite sign. Faux suede is great for foil stamping. Genuine leather obtained from animal skins has several layers. The skin is freed from hair, epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, getting the so-called naked. Then the skins are tanned with a decoction of oak bark and chrome salts. The volume and porosity of tanned leather increase.
Finishing includes: painting, fatliquoring, dressing, ironing, embossing. Leatherette is a material obtained by applying a nitrocellulose coating with a relief pattern to the front side of a coarse-textured cotton fabric that imitates leather. Saffiano is a thin leather made from goatskins.
The leaves of the sumac plant are used for tanning morocco. By applying an embossed pattern to the surface of morocco, shagreen leather is obtained. For highly artistic bookbinding, morocco and suede are used. In other cases, natural leather.